從零搭建 React 開發環境

發聲的沉默者

前言

大概在 2019 年,自己搭建 React 開發環境的想法萌芽,到目前為止,公司的很多項目上,也在使用中,比較穩定。為什么要自己造輪子?起初是因為自己并不滿意市面上的腳手架。另外,造輪子對于自己也有一些技術上的幫助,學別人二次封裝的東西,不如直接使用底層的庫,這樣也有助于自己系統的學習一遍知識,廢話不多說,直接進入正文,如何搭建自己的開發環境。

初始化

創建文件夾并進入:

$ mkdir tristana && cd tristana

初始化 package.json

$ npm init

安裝 Webpack

$ npm install webpack webpack-cli --save-dev

創建以下目錄結構、文件和內容:

project

tristana
|- package.json
|- /dist
   |- index.html
|- /script
   |- webpack.config.js
|- index.html
|- /src
   |- index.js

src/index.js

document.getElementById("root").append("React");

index.html && dist/index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta charset="utf-8" />
        <title>tristana</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <div id="root"></div>
        <script src="../src/index.js"></script>
    </body>
</html>

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
    mode: "development",
    entry: "./src/index.js",
};

package.json

{
    // ...
    "scripts": {
        "build": "webpack --mode=development --config script/webpack.config.js"
    },
}

然后根目錄終端輸入:npm run build

在瀏覽器中打開 dist 目錄下的 index.html,如果一切正常,你應該能看到以下文本:'React'

index.html 目前放在 dist 目錄下,但它是手動創建的,下面會教你如何生成 index.html 而非手動編輯它。

Webpack 核心功能

Babel

$ npm install @babel/cli @babel/core babel-loader @babel/preset-env --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
    // ...
    module: {
        rules: [
            {
                test: /\.(js|jsx)$/,
                loader: "babel-loader",
                exclude: /node_modules/,
            },
        ],
    },
};

.babelrc

在根目錄下添加 .babelrc 文件:

{
    "presets": ["@babel/preset-env", "@babel/preset-react"]
}

樣式

$ npm install style-loader css-loader less less-loader --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
    // ...
    module: {
        rules: [
            {
                test: /\.(css|less)$/,
                use: [
                    {
                        loader: "style-loader",
                    },
                    {
                        loader: "css-loader",
                        options: {
                            importLoaders: 1,
                        },
                    },
                    {
                        loader: "less-loader",
                        lessOptions: {
                            javascriptEnabled: true,
                        },
                    },
                ],
            },
        ],
    },
};

圖片字體

$ npm install file-loader --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
    // ...
    module: {
        rules: [
            {
                test: /\.(png|svg|jpg|gif|jpeg)$/,
                loader: 'file-loader'
            },
            {
                test: /\.(woff|woff2|eot|ttf|otf)$/,
                loader: 'file-loader'
            }
        ],
    },
};

HTML

$ npm install html-webpack-plugin --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin');
module.exports = {
    // ...
    plugins: {
        html: new HtmlWebpackPlugin({
            title: 'tristana',
            template: 'public/index.html'
        }),
    }
};

index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta charset="utf-8" />
        <title>tristana</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <div id="root"></div>
    </body>
</html>

開發服務

$ npm install webpack-dev-server --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const path = require("path");
const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin');
module.exports = {
    // ...
    devServer: {
        contentBase: path.resolve(__dirname, "dist"),
        hot: true,
        historyApiFallback: true,
        compress: true,
    },
};

package.json

{
    // ...
    "scripts": {
        "start": "webpack serve --mode=development --config script/webpack.config.js"
    },
    // ...
}

清理 dist

$ npm install clean-webpack-plugin --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const { CleanWebpackPlugin } = require('clean-webpack-plugin');
module.exports = {
    // ...
    plugins: {
        new CleanWebpackPlugin()
    }
};

Tips

由于 webpack 使用的是^5.21.2 版本,在使用該插件時,會提示clean-webpack-plugin: options.output.path not defined. Plugin disabled...,暫時還未解決。

環境變量

$ npm install cross-env --save-dev

package.json

{
    // ...
    "scripts": {
        "start": "cross-env ENV_LWD=development webpack serve  --mode=development --config script/webpack.config.js",
        "build": "cross-env ENV_LWD=production webpack --mode=production --config script/webpack.config.js"
    },
    // ...
}

.jsx 文件

安裝依賴

$ npm install @babel/preset-react react react-dom --save-dev

.babelrc

{
  "presets": ["@babel/preset-env", "@babel/preset-react"]
}

src/App.jsx

src 目錄下,新增 App.jsx 文件:

import React, { Component } from "react";

class App extends Component {
    render() {
        return (
            <div>
                <h1> Hello, World! </h1>
            </div>
        );
    }
}

export default App;

src/index.js

import React from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";
import App from "./App.jsx";
ReactDOM.render(<App />, document.getElementById("root"));

React Router

安裝依賴

$ npm install react-router history --save

src/index.js

import React from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";
import { Router, Route, Link } from "react-router";
import { createBrowserHistory } from "history";
import App from "./App.jsx";

const About = () => {
    return <>About</>;
};

ReactDOM.render(
    <Router history={createBrowserHistory()}>
        <Route path="/" component={App} />
        <Route path="/about" component={About} />
    </Router>,
    document.getElementById("root")
);

MobX

安裝依賴

$ npm install mobx mobx-react babel-preset-mobx --save

.babelrc

{
  "presets": ["@babel/preset-env", "@babel/preset-react", "mobx"]
}

src/store.js

src 目錄下新建 store.js

import { observable, action, makeObservable } from "mobx";

class Store {

    constructor() {
        makeObservable(this);
    }

    @observable
    count = 0;

    @action("add")
    add = () => {
        this.count = this.count + 1;
    };

    @action("reduce")
    reduce = () => {
        this.count = this.count - 1;
    };
}
export default new Store();

index.js

import { Provider } from "mobx-react";
import Store from "./store";
// ...
ReactDOM.render(
    <Provider store={Store}>
        <Router history={createBrowserHistory()}>
        <Route path="/" component={App} />
        <Route path="/about" component={About} />
        </Router>
    </Provider>,
    document.getElementById("root")
);

src/App.jsx

import React, { Component } from "react";
import { observer, inject } from "mobx-react";

@inject("store")
@observer
class App extends Component {
    render() {
        return (
            <div>
                <div>{this.props.store.count}</div>
                <button onClick={this.props.store.add}>add</button>
                <button onClick={this.props.store.reduce}>reduce</button>
            </div>
        );
    }
}

export default App;

Ant Design

安裝依賴

$ npm install antd babel-plugin-import --save

.babelrc

{
    // ...
    "plugins": [
        [
            "import",
            {
                "libraryName": "antd",
                "libraryDirectory": "es",
                "style": true
            }
        ]
    ]
}

src/App.jsx

// ...
import { DatePicker } from "antd";
import "antd/dist/antd.css";

@inject("store")
@observer
class App extends Component {
    render() {
        return (
            <div>
                <DatePicker />
            </div>
        );
    }
}

export default App;

TypeScript

安裝依賴

$ npm install typescript @babel/preset-typescript --save-dev

.babelrc

{
    "presets": [
        // ...
        "@babel/preset-typescript"
    ]
}

tsconfig.json

在根目錄下,新增 tsconfig.json 文件:

{
    "compilerOptions": {
        "emitDecoratorMetadata": true,
        "experimentalDecorators": true,
        "target": "ES5",
        "allowSyntheticDefaultImports": true,
        "strict": true,
        "forceConsistentCasingInFileNames": true,
        "allowJs": true,
        "outDir": "./dist/",
        "esModuleInterop": true,
        "noImplicitAny": false,
        "sourceMap": true,
        "module": "esnext",
        "moduleResolution": "node",
        "isolatedModules": true,
        "importHelpers": true,
        "lib": ["esnext", "dom", "dom.iterable"],
        "skipLibCheck": true,
        "jsx": "react",
        "typeRoots": ["node", "node_modules/@types"],
        "rootDirs": ["./src"],
        "baseUrl": "./src"
    },
    "include": ["./src/**/*"],
    "exclude": ["node_modules"]
}

src/App.jsx

更換文件后綴 App.jsx -> App.tsx

import React, { Component } from "react";
import { observer, inject } from "mobx-react";
import { DatePicker } from "antd";
import "antd/dist/antd.css";

@inject("store")
@observer
class App extends Component {
    props: any;
    render() {
        return (
            <div>
                <DatePicker />
                <div>{this.props.store.count}</div>
                <button onClick={this.props.store.add}>add</button>
                <button onClick={this.props.store.reduce}>reduce</button>
            </div>
        );
    }
}

export default App;

代碼規范

代碼校驗、代碼格式化、Git 提交前校驗、Vscode配置、編譯校驗

ESLint

安裝依賴

$ npm install @typescript-eslint/parser eslint eslint-plugin-standard @typescript-eslint/parser @typescript-eslint/eslint-plugin eslint-plugin-promise  --save-dev

.eslintrc.js

在根目錄下,新增 .eslintrc.js 文件:

module.exports = {
    extends: ["eslint:recommended", "plugin:react/recommended"],
    env: {
        browser: true,
        commonjs: true,
        es6: true,
    },
    globals: {
        $: true,
        process: true,
        __dirname: true,
    },
    parser: "@typescript-eslint/parser",
    parserOptions: {
        ecmaFeatures: {
            jsx: true,
            modules: true,
        },
        sourceType: "module",
        ecmaVersion: 6,
    },
    plugins: ["react", "standard", "promise", "@typescript-eslint"],
    settings: {
        "import/ignore": ["node_modules"],
        react: {
            version: "latest",
        },
    },
    rules: {
        quotes: [2, "single"],
        "no-console": 0,
        "no-debugger": 1,
        "no-var": 1,
        semi: ["error", "always"],
        "no-irregular-whitespace": 0,
        "no-trailing-spaces": 1,
        "eol-last": 0,
        "no-unused-vars": [
        1,
        {
            vars: "all",
            args: "after-used",
        },
        ],
        "no-case-declarations": 0,
        "no-underscore-dangle": 0,
        "no-alert": 2,
        "no-lone-blocks": 0,
        "no-class-assign": 2,
        "no-cond-assign": 2,
        "no-const-assign": 2,
        "no-delete-var": 2,
        "no-dupe-keys": 2,
        "use-isnan": 2,
        "no-duplicate-case": 2,
        "no-dupe-args": 2,
        "no-empty": 2,
        "no-func-assign": 2,
        "no-invalid-this": 0,
        "no-redeclare": 2,
        "no-spaced-func": 2,
        "no-this-before-super": 0,
        "no-undef": 2,
        "no-return-assign": 0,
        "no-script-url": 2,
        "no-use-before-define": 2,
        "no-extra-boolean-cast": 0,
        "no-unreachable": 1,
        "comma-dangle": 2,
        "no-mixed-spaces-and-tabs": 2,
        "prefer-arrow-callback": 0,
        "arrow-parens": 0,
        "arrow-spacing": 0,
        camelcase: 0,
        "jsx-quotes": [1, "prefer-double"],
        "react/display-name": 0,
        "react/forbid-prop-types": [
        2,
        {
            forbid: ["any"],
        },
        ],
        "react/jsx-boolean-value": 0,
        "react/jsx-closing-bracket-location": 1,
        "react/jsx-curly-spacing": [
        2,
        {
            when: "never",
            children: true,
        },
        ],
        "react/jsx-indent": ["error", 4],
        "react/jsx-key": 2,
        "react/jsx-no-bind": 0,
        "react/jsx-no-duplicate-props": 2,
        "react/jsx-no-literals": 0,
        "react/jsx-no-undef": 1,
        "react/jsx-pascal-case": 0,
        "react/jsx-sort-props": 0,
        "react/jsx-uses-react": 1,
        "react/jsx-uses-vars": 2,
        "react/no-danger": 0,
        "react/no-did-mount-set-state": 0,
        "react/no-did-update-set-state": 0,
        "react/no-direct-mutation-state": 2,
        "react/no-multi-comp": 0,
        "react/no-set-state": 0,
        "react/no-unknown-property": 2,
        "react/prefer-es6-class": 2,
        "react/prop-types": 0,
        "react/react-in-jsx-scope": 2,
        "react/self-closing-comp": 0,
        "react/sort-comp": 0,
        "react/no-array-index-key": 0,
        "react/no-deprecated": 1,
        "react/jsx-equals-spacing": 2,
    },
};

.eslintignore

在根目錄下,新增 .eslintignore 文件:

src/assets

.vscode

在根目錄下新增 .vscode 文件夾,然后新增 .vscode/settings.json

{
    "eslint.validate": [
        "javascript",
        "javascriptreact",
        "typescript",
        "typescriptreact"
    ]
}

Perttier

安裝依賴

$ npm install prettier --save-dev

prettier.config.js

在根目錄下,新增 prettier.config.js 文件:

module.exports = {
    // 一行最多 100 字符
    printWidth: 100,
    // 使用 4 個空格縮進
    tabWidth: 4,
    // 不使用縮進符,而使用空格
    useTabs: false,
    // 行尾需要有分號
    semi: true,
    // 使用單引號
    singleQuote: true,
    // 對象的 key 僅在必要時用引號
    quoteProps: 'as-needed',
    // jsx 不使用單引號,而使用雙引號
    jsxSingleQuote: false,
    // 末尾不需要逗號
    trailingComma: 'none',
    // 大括號內的首尾需要空格
    bracketSpacing: true,
    // jsx 標簽的反尖括號需要換行
    jsxBracketSameLine: false,
    // 箭頭函數,只有一個參數的時候,也需要括號
    arrowParens: 'avoid',
    // 每個文件格式化的范圍是文件的全部內容
    rangeStart: 0,
    rangeEnd: Infinity,
    // 不需要寫文件開頭的 @prettier
    requirePragma: false,
    // 不需要自動在文件開頭插入 @prettier
    insertPragma: false,
    // 使用默認的折行標準
    proseWrap: 'preserve',
    // 根據顯示樣式決定 html 要不要折行
    htmlWhitespaceSensitivity: 'css',
    // 換行符使用 lf
    endOfLine: 'lf'
};

stylelint

安裝依賴

$ npm install stylelint stylelint-config-standard stylelint-config-prettier --save-dev

stylelint.config.js

在根目錄下,新增 stylelint.config.js 文件:

module.exports = {
    extends: ['stylelint-config-standard', 'stylelint-config-prettier'],
    ignoreFiles: [
        '**/*.ts',
        '**/*.tsx',
        '**/*.png',
        '**/*.jpg',
        '**/*.jpeg',
        '**/*.gif',
        '**/*.mp3',
        '**/*.json'
    ],
    rules: {
        'at-rule-no-unknown': [
            true,
            {
                ignoreAtRules: ['extends', 'ignores']
            }
        ],
        indentation: 4,
        'number-leading-zero': null,
        'unit-allowed-list': ['em', 'rem', 's', 'px', 'deg', 'all', 'vh', '%'],
        'no-eol-whitespace': [
            true,
            {
                ignore: 'empty-lines'
            }
        ],
        'declaration-block-trailing-semicolon': 'always',
        'selector-pseudo-class-no-unknown': [
            true,
            {
                ignorePseudoClasses: ['global']
            }
        ],
        'block-closing-brace-newline-after': 'always',
        'declaration-block-semicolon-newline-after': 'always',
        'no-descending-specificity': null,
        'selector-list-comma-newline-after': 'always',
        'selector-pseudo-element-colon-notation': 'single'
    }
};

lint-staged、pre-commit

安裝依賴

$ npm install lint-staged prettier eslint pre-commit --save-dev

package.json

{
    // ...
    "scripts": {
        "lint:tsx": "eslint --ext .tsx src && eslint --ext .ts src",
        "lint:css": "stylelint --aei .less .css src",
        "precommit": "lint-staged",
        "precommit-msg": "echo 'Pre-commit checks...' && exit 0"
    },
    "pre-commit": [
        "precommit",
        "precommit-msg"
    ],
    "lint-staged": {
        "*.{js,jsx,ts,tsx}": [
            "eslint --fix",
            "prettier --write",
            "git add"
        ],
        "*.{css,less}": [
            "stylelint --fix",
            "prettier --write",
            "git add"
        ]
    }
}

eslint-webpack-plugin

安裝依賴

$ npm install eslint-webpack-plugin --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const ESLintPlugin = require('eslint-webpack-plugin');
module.exports = {
    // ...
    plugins: [new ESLintPlugin()],
};

總結

搭建這個的過程,也是遇到了不少坑,收獲也是蠻多的,希望這個教程能夠幫助更多的同學,少采點坑,完整的 React 開發環境可以看這個tristana,求點贊,求關注!

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